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4 percent of the area. After reform, concentration decreased in both countries, but the decline was sharper in Taiwan. The size of the average farm remained about the same for the two countries, but decreased after 1960 in Taiwan. In the ﬁrst decade of implementation both the agricultural area and the number of landholdings increased considerably in Taiwan, while this did not happen in El Salvador. 4). Productivity and income In the ﬁrst period of the implementation of the Taiwanese land reform, land productivity increased considerably because of the higher labor and input use intensity, while application of multiple cropping techniques and increasing working days per worker also enhanced labor productivity.
El Salvador had nothing comparable to the Taiwanese rent reduction program, which also beneﬁtted a lot of small tenants outside the reformed areas. Land reform should be concerned with the redistribution not only of land but also of rural income. Increasing rural uncertainty was also present in Taiwan, but was reduced in time by consistent measures and follow-up activities. On the other hand, civil war continued for more than a decade in El Salvador, which obviously did not help stimulate the mechanisms for resource ﬂows toward rural areas.
The increasing trend of land concentration in El Salvador meant a strong increase in landless families, a decrease in the number of tenancies, and concentrated property ownership by landlords. In the ﬁfteen years before reform, landlessness among rural families in this country increased from 12 per cent to 41 per cent of the total, while the number of tenants declined by 50 per cent. In 1971, 60 per cent of the landholdings were still occupied by tenants or lessees. After the Second World War, the agro-export crops were modernized by new technologies, higher input intensity and improved seeds.
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