Download A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, by Frederick E. Hoxie PDF

By Frederick E. Hoxie

"This is a vital ebook. within the latter 19th century, varied and influential components in white the United States mixed forces to settle the 'Indian query' via assimilation. . . . the consequences have been the primarily treaty-breaking Dawes Act of 1887, similar laws, and doubtful courtroom judgements. Schoolteachers and missionaries have been dispatched to the reservations en masse. Eventual 'citizenship' with no useful rights used to be given local american citizens; the Indians misplaced two-thirds of reservation land because it had existed ahead of the assimilationist crusade. . . . With perception and talent that move well past craft, Hoxie has admirably outlined concerns and factors, positioned economic/political/social interplay into cogent point of view, introduced a number of Anglo and Indian participants and companies to lifestyles, and set forth very important lessons."-Choice. "This major examine of Indian-white family in the course of a posh time in nationwide politics merits shut attention."-American Indian Quarterly. "Important and intellectually difficult . . . This quantity is going a ways to fill a wide hole within the background of usa Indian policy."-Journal of yankee background. Frederick E. Hoxie is director of the D'Arcy McNickle middle for the heritage of the yankee Indian on the Newberry Library. He coedited (with Joan Mark) E. Jane Gay's With the Nez Perc?s: Alice Fletcher within the box, 1889-92 (Nebraska 1981).

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As a young man he witnessed the displacement of the Iroquois tribes by American settlement and recognized the drastic changes that occurred whenever “civilized” societies came into contact with Indians. ” Could the consequences of this upheaval be positive? For Morgan, the answer was certain. “It can now be asserted,” he wrote, “that savagery preceded barbarism in all the tribes of mankind, as barbarism is known to have preceded civilization. ”28 Since civilization was the ultimate consequence of social change, it was logical to assert that change itself was part of a universal progressive process.

When Charles Sumner died in 1874, party leaders chose Dawes to take his place. In 1879 the veteran politician’s chief concern was winning renomination to the Senate. This was a new experience for Dawes because he had always been a party regular. In the House he had been reluctant to challenge gop leaders, and for his faithful service had been rewarded with patronage appointments and the chairmanship of the appropriations committee. His behavior in the Senate was similar. He cooperated with his colleagues and benefited from his amiability.

His efforts were largely confined to written comments and private lobbying. Fletcher was an activist. She advocated specific legislation, maintained ties to prominent reformers, and worked as a special agent for the Indian Office. Together they succeeded in fashioning a scientific defense of Indian assimilation. Their contributions were crucial, for they established the context within which politicians and reformers would act. Soon after Morgan’s death in 1881, his student and protégé Adolph Bandelier wrote that John Wesley Powell was the “direct successor The Appeal of Assimilation 21 to Mr.

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